Topic 2: Practices for Energy Transformation

The vehicle named “Bubble Car,” developed by the Dutch “Eco-runner” team and powered by hydrogen, has made it into the Guinness World Records by traveling an impressive 2,448 kilometers on just 1 liter of fuel at an average speed of about 45 km per hour.

The Car Reveal Of The Eco-Runner XIII

Distributed solar photovoltaics (PV) are systems typically installed on rooftops, with a capacity of less than 1 megawatt. These systems offer an alternative to traditional electricity generation methods like coal, oil, and natural gas power plants.

In a PV system, solar cells capture energy from the sun and convert it into electricity. There are three generations of solar cells. First-generation solar cells, which are currently the most common, are made from single or multi-crystalline silicon. Second-generation solar cells, known as thin-film solar PV cells, are more efficient and have higher capacity factors. Advanced third-generation solar cells, like high-concentration PV cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, and organic solar cells, are still in the development phase.

Solar glass would be able to capture and store solar energy. Researchers at Michigan State University leads the project. According to the research team, 5 to 7 billion square meters of usable window space exists, enough to power a full 40% of US energy needs using solar glass.

The “Twelve” initiative, based in Switzerland, Iceland, the USA, and Canada, has been actively capturing carbon from the atmosphere in its facilities. Now, they have developed a new solution to convert this collected resource into jet fuel. Their transformation platform, called “Opus,” first separates carbon and oxygen through electrolysis, and then converts the carbon into jet fuel by combining it with hydrogen. The goal is to start production at 40,000 gallons annually and gradually scale up to 1 million gallons over time.

The second-largest driver of global warming is methane, a greenhouse gas 28 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Landfills are a major source of methane, which is created when organic material decomposes underground.

A startup that began at MIT is aiming to significantly reduce methane emissions from landfills with a system that requires no extra land, roads, or electric lines to work. The company, Loci Controls, has developed a solar-powered system that optimizes the collection of methane from landfills so more of it can be converted into natural gas.

For climate friendly cows, ZELP develops cattle wearable technology to neutralize methane, improve animal welfare, and get organizations closer to net zero

MOXIE is designed to convert Martian carbon dioxide, which makes up 96% of Mars’ atmosphere, into oxygen. NASA is testing this technology in the hopes of sending oxygen generators to Mars in the distant future, where they could be used to create the tens of thousands of kilograms of rocket propellant that will be needed to launch astronauts off the planet and back to Earth (as well as providing oxygen to breathe).